Often, bedbug bites are clustered along lines usually following arms and legs. Theories range from the idea that bedbugs are feeding along blood vessels to the idea that bedbugs remain with their bodies touching the bedding while they feed, and the bugs are left to feed only along lines where the skin is touching the bedding in just the right manner.
In the case of beds, a more economical option is to encase both the mattress and box spring in a protective cover like those used for allergy relief. Encasements specifically designed to help protect against bed bugs are available through retail or pest control firms. Higher quality ones tend to be more durable and comfortable to sleep on. Once the encasement is installed and zipped shut, any bugs which happen to be inside are entombed and eventually will die. Encasements also help protect newly purchased beds, and make it easier to spot and destroy any bugs residing on the outer surface during subsequent examination. Encasements will not, however, keep bed bugs from crawling onto a bed and biting a sleeping person.
Bed bugs infestations can be treated by pesticides (make sure it specifically treats for bed bugs) or call a professional. Clean laundry and bedding by washing in hot water and drying with high heat. Steam cleaning can be effective, but be sure to check for bugs in a week or two. Concentrate in the areas they like to hide such as the seams. Bed bugs are sensitive to heat, so putting your mattress in a tight plastic bag and leaving it in the heat for several days can kill adults and the eggs. Vacuum your mattress and the areas around it. Be sure to immediately empty the vacuum cleaner and throw it out. If your mattress is infested, you may also consider getting a new mattress, but be sure to take care of the rest of your home so that your new mattress doesn’t get infested.
when i was a young kid and got the chicken pox my mom had bathed me in warm water and oat meal, when my children developed chicken pox i did the same for them, this helps with the itching for several hours. You can buy packets of oat meal at a drug store for purposes suck as chicken pox, poison ivy, poison oak, etc. The packets sold at stores contain oat meal and other ingredients to ease itching and burning. I hope this is helpful for anyone who is willing to try it, it works for my family.
But the bites will look different from person to person, and some people won’t develop any reaction whatsoever. “The same bedbug could bite two different people and one could have no reaction at all and the other can have an extreme reaction with a swollen arm or itchy rash,” says Eric Braun, a board-certified entomologist and business manager for the national pest control company Rentokil Steritech, who is based in Redding, Pennsylvania. Some people end up developing a rash that looks like eczema. (5)
If you know that you have the bugs. Get sealing covers the kind that encloses completely, one for the mattress and one for the box spring. That will trap those critters inside and they will eventually die in there. Next you will need to decide of what combination of treatments you wish to use. Its a job that you will have to keep up with for some time. Do your research online first.
Hello there Trish from Reno we found bed bugs oh my gosh, I am am the only one who has been getting bit last yr on my feet this yr on my hands. My husband saturated our mattress with rubbing alcohol baseboards and I am washing everything tomorrow should we spray our entire you’re house too even our cloth furniture? What else should we do. Thanks you for this site. Sleepless in Reno…
Some friends brought me a gift, bed bugs. After some research I discovered cedar oil. I have been using it as a repellent. I spray around my mattress at night and it seems to keep the bugs at bay. It is harmless to me and my pets and I can even use it on them to repel fleas. Has anyone else tried it? It works on the same principle as a cedar chest is used to keep bugs away from your valuable clothing or bedding items. It does have a cedar odor which I find mildly enjoyable.

First, make sure that the suspected bugs are bedbugs, because other insects or arthropods such as a carpet beetle, scabies mite, a bat bug, louse, or other bugs may be mistaken for bedbugs. If there is confirmation of a bedbug infestation, several measures can be taken to help control or eradicate the infestation, using both nonchemical and chemical (insecticides) methods. It can take several weeks to months to achieve complete eradication of a bedbug infestation, and it may take several treatment cycles to completely eliminate them. In many cases, it will be necessary to hire a pest control service in order to implement a comprehensive extermination strategy.


A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about 7-9 hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; 10-12 for preschool-aged children; and 16-18 hours for newborns. There are two stages of sleep; 1) REM sleep (rapid-eye movement), and 2) NREM sleep (non-rapid-eye movement). The side effects of lack of sleep or insomnia include:
A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about 7-9 hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; 10-12 for preschool-aged children; and 16-18 hours for newborns. There are two stages of sleep; 1) REM sleep (rapid-eye movement), and 2) NREM sleep (non-rapid-eye movement). The side effects of lack of sleep or insomnia include:
This morning, I stood in front of the mirror for my daily grooming routine when the most gruesome red bumps appeared before me and it’s at the side of my neck! Thankfully it’s Saturday coz I will not spend my time with my co-workers! I researched and stumble upon your website. I wish you could help me The bites are getting itchy and what would you recommend? Natural or modern medicine? Thanks i’ll be waiting for your answer…
Around the time I started getting bites, I noticed more and more neighbors throwing out mattresses, furniture… I got suspicious. We live in apartments. I react differently to different kinds of bites so I can always tell the difference between mosquitoes and ants and such. I didn’t know what those bites were until I caught one of the little hellions crawling across the sheets.
Dusts last longer than aerosols, but the crack and crevice tips on the Phantom and Bedlam areosols enable you to get into the smallest cracks. It is a good idea to use a combination of sprays and dusts. Temprid SC may be used on the tufts and seams of mattresses. It works well as a residual insecticide sprayed in other recommended treatment areas such as night stands, chests, dressers, couches and chairs.
The symptoms of a bedbug bite are usually mild when present, and often individuals will not experience any symptoms at all. Bedbug bites can occur on any exposed part of the body, with the face, neck, arms, and hands being areas commonly affected. The signs and symptoms can appear from minutes to days after the initial bite. Affected individuals will usually complain of localized itching and reddish-colored skin lesions, which may look like a flat welt or a raised bump. Sometimes, the lesions can be found in clusters or in a linear pattern. Typically, these skin lesions will go away after one to two weeks.
Now we are shut ins lol and dont allow guests to our home lol..We moved 1 hour away from town and have property now and 1 hour min away from most people we know..We go and visit them..When we return home from shopping/visits etc,we go into the 1st room and change,put our clothing in the laundry machine and check for bugs then put clean home clothing on !!!
Call your city or town health inpespector. In most major cities it is the landlords obligation to hire a an exterminator. In the case of bed bugs I believe there is more of an urgency and most city inspectors will come out within days, now that bb’s have reached epidemic levels not only in the U.S., but in many countries around the world. In some U.S.cities there are “lanlord/tenant agreements”, which are locally legal and binding contracts that state what the obligation of a landlord and tenant is, and most contain a clause which says that repairs, maintenance, etc.,which are landlords obligations, and what recourse a tenant has when the landlord refuses to repair or maintain his rental properties. In some cases, the tenant may pay for the repairs and deduct from the rent after following various steps first, such as, notifying the landlord via certified letter, prior to the tenant paying for said repairs. Please READ your lease and call your city or town’s health department or building inspectors first,as these ordinances may vary. You can always file a case in local claims court without an attorney,after paying for the repairs,if all else fails, and moving is not an option. I am not a lawyer, and this is not legal advice. I hope this helps. Bed bugs are a public health hazard. And not taken lightly by many local elected, or appointed officials. I hope this helps.

I spent the night at my boyfriends house 5 nights in a row, knowing that his family owns a couch infested with bed bugs. I find it weird that I’m the only one, out of 7 family members, that gets bit by the bed bugs! Its crazy! I get bit during the day when I sit for a few mins, or even sleep on the bed at night, but it still baffles me that I’m the only one who is suffering from the itch of the bites. My son who I share the bed with does not get bit at all, which is great, but I’m curious, “why only Me?”
Bed bugs are a traveler's nightmare. They can be picked up in hotel rooms, leaving red itchy bumps and possibly rashes to ruin your vacation. Or even worse: If you accidentally bring them back with you, they could infect your whole house. To prevent a plague of bed bugs, here are some tips of what to check while you're on the road and how to determine the symptoms of bed bug bites.
The diagnosis of a bedbug infestation should be based on the clinical history and appearance of bites. A thorough inspection of sleeping quarters by the patient, a family member, or a pest control expert may demonstrate the telltale signs of an infestation15 (i.e., specks of blood-tinged insect feces and exoskeleton casts [Figure 5]). With the aid of a magnifying glass, special attention should be given to cracks and crevices of furniture, baseboards, electrical boxes, curtains, carpet, luggage, bed frames and headboards, picture frames, wall hangings, mattress and box spring seams, peeling wall paper, clothes, and linens.37 Live bedbugs can sometimes be caught by turning on a flashlight just before dawn, when bedbugs are most active, larger in appearance, and slower to scatter because of recent feeding.40
My daughter stayed at a friends for 2 nights…. And brought home bedbugs!! She has bites from the top of her head to her feet. The itching must be horrific. Poor child. After 2 days of not being able to stop the itching, as a last resort (on a Sun at 11pm) I told her to use a bathroom spray cleaner that had bleach in it. She only put it on her legs, but the itching stopped there, just not on arms, stomach or in her head. Don’t recommend bleach but she was able to get a couple hours of sleep. I will try several things to try to help her that I have read from previous comments. Thanks everyone….
I am so glad I came to this site, as it at least I don’t feel alone in this battle I’m fighting! It is 2am and I am sitting in my new recliner that my sister gave me last spring!! I love my recliner, but it is ruined as of tonight when as a last resort I decided to sleep in it since I have been driven out of my bed from these unrelenting bloodsuckers!
One interesting thing is: many of my small lesions seem to be permanent. I have had some of the prominent ones for more than a year and they show no signs of shrinking or going away. I am not particularly worried about skin cancer because the permanent lesions are all very regular in appearance; skin-cancer lesions are usually irregular in shape and color.
The only way to stop getting bedbug bites is to eradicate them, but it will be difficult and time-consuming. You can try to address the problem yourself, but It is best to enlist a professional pest control service that can use nonchemical and chemical measures. If you are renting, notify your landlord as other units should be inspected and the landlord may be required to assist in the eradication.
Bring a little flashlight—hotel room lighting is always pretty poor and the dimmer the lighting, the harder it is to see small bed bugs or their fecal spots. I would pull back the bed covers and look all around the head of the bed. Pull back the sheets, too, and look at mattress seams and edges that are exposed. bed bugs love to hide under mattress tags. Look all around the box springs, too. If there's a dust ruffle, pull it up and look under it as much as possible. Look for moving bugs and stationary, hiding bugs.
Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth or Kieselguhr.[60] Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a nontoxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. While diatomaceous earth performed poorly, silica gel may be effective.[61][62]
Me and my husband sleep in the same bed every night but i don’t get bit only he does. He has real bad bites and we’ve been researching bed bugs cause we know absolutely nothing about them. How do we get rid of them without having to pay a whole lot cause were on a really tight budget. We want them gone cause even though im not getting bit its hard to sleep knowing your sleeping with little bloodsuckers 0_o
I can’t stop inching . I have not had any new bites .but I’m still inching .please tell me how long do it last when do the inching stop? My friend give me a mattess n box s. Last week I just started wakeing up n the med hours of the night with bites n hives on my arms n hands. One night I seen a bug n google it , it was bedbugs i jump up waking everyone up in house we put both mat n box s. Out cleaned up real good spary everynight n havenot seen one sence, but how long is the inch? N are they gone or just hiding.
2. Active Guard Liners: Active Guard Mattress Liners may be placed on beds and are effective as both preventative and active bed bug treatments. They kill bed bugs and dust mites within 72 hours and will prevent bed bugs from infesting mattresses. ActiveGuard Liners act like a fitted sheet; it comes in single, full, queen, and king sizes that fit up to 17" in depth.

The bed bug is a universal problem yet it can be dealt with on a regular basis. used items and new items carry bed bugs. always wash and dry for 20 min. ( its the heat that kills the bug). bed pillows need to be washed and dried on a regular basis and the beds head board are full of body skin cells that attract the bugs. a good old cleaning with vaccum and wipe down is needed. keep your vac cleaned and bag empty after each use, the bugs are in the vac.
Bedbugs are obligate blood parasites that belong to the insect family Cimicidae. Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, the two bedbug species that feed primarily on humans, are oval, reddish-brown, flat, and wingless. Adults are typically 4 to 7 mm in length (Figure 1). Nymphs can be as small as 1 mm, and are translucent and lighter in color 5,7 (Figure 2). Adult females produce 200 to 500 eggs in a typical six- to 12-month life span.5,8 Bedbugs can withstand temperatures from 44.6°F to 113°F (7°C to 45°C).8
Bed bugs occur around the world.[36] Before the 1950s about 30% of houses in the United States had bedbugs.[2] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[3][4][36] Before the 1980s they were common in the developing world but rare in the developed world.[4] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[37]
Some people experience anxiety, sleeplessness and unease as symptoms of having had bed bugs. Let's face it, bed bug infestations are understandably significant psychosocial stressors, and some people may experience sleeplessness as they worry about bugs biting them or their family members. Not surprisingly, people have been known to self-isolate, avoiding family and friends out of concern for spreading the infestation, or (if word gets out that they have bed bugs) they may be avoided by friends or others in the community, or find they have problems at work.  As a result, victims of bed bug infestations may experience moderate to severe levels of stress, anxiety and depression. In severe cases, these persons should seek counseling and treatment as required.
It was stated in 2012 that no truly effective insecticides were available.[6] Insecticides that have historically been found effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos, and malathion.[4] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time, and harm to health from their use is of concern.[3] The carbamate insecticide propoxur is highly toxic to bed bugs, but it has potential toxicity to children exposed to it, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has been reluctant to approve it for indoor use.[33] Boric acid, occasionally applied as a safe indoor insecticide, is not effective against bed bugs[34] because they do not groom.[35]
Bedbug bite reactions are self-limited and typically resolve within one to two weeks without intervention.15 There is no evidence that any treatment alters the natural history of bedbug dermatitis.8 If pruritus is present, nonprescription topical antipruritic preparations containing the active ingredient doxepin, or intermediate potency corticosteroids may be beneficial. Mupirocin (Bactroban) and/or systemic antibiotics should be considered in the treatment of superinfected bites.8

There are thousands of types of spiders (technically arachnids and not insects) crawling around the U.S., but only two of them–the black widow and the brown recluse–can cause serious problems, and even those are rare. Most of the time you’ll see red bumps that hurt and itch if you’re bitten by a spider. Very few people get the severe pain and cramping of a widow bite or the decaying ulcers of a recluse bite (although if you do, get medical help right away).
Bed bug bites occur most frequently while you’re asleep. As bed bugs bite they inject their victims with an anesthetic (as well as an anticoagulant), numbing the area and making it very rare for someone to wake up when bitten. Bites normally take a day or two to appear, although depending on your individual reaction they may be more visible sooner.
Just wondering if it is unusual for bed bugs to bite where you are clothed? I have 3 bites, in a diagonal line on one side and in a triangle shape on the other side of my pelvic area both which are covered by underwear at night. Then I have a random spot here and there on my legs. We have a plastic mattress cover on our bed but use dark sheets. As best I can tell there is no evidence of bed bugs. What do you think? Thanks!
I don’t think my infestation is very extreme RIGHT NOW. i know for a fact they aren’t in or on the mattresses so that only leaves the crevices along the sides of the carpet. i got on my hands and knees to look but i still didn’t see anything. I KNOW THEY’RE THERE, WE HAVE THE BITE MARKS TO PROVE IT!!!!!! the little blood suckers are excellent at hiding.
Very helpful article, plus everyone’s comments. I wish you all the best of luck with bedbug problems. We went to a cabin near Yosemite before Christmas and I saw bugs on the bed. Luckily we didn’t sleep there and left right away. However I’m afraid some came home with us. About 3 weeks after our trip, I got a rash on my neck, but it’s not very itchy. Haven’t seen any bugs at home, but am worried. Will try the tips in the article–any suggestions how to heat a bedroom to 120 degrees?
Bed bugs are small, brownish, flattened insects that feed solely on the blood of animals. Although the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) prefers feeding on humans, it will also bite other warm-blooded animals, including dogs, cats, birds and rodents. It has done so since ancient times; bed bugs are mentioned in medieval European texts and classical Greek writings back to the time of Aristotle.
Bed bugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583,[50] though they remained rare in England until 1670. Some in the 18th century believed bed bugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666). Giovanni Antonio Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (roughly equivalent to present-day Slovenia) in the 18th century.[52][53]
Jump up ^ Kambu, Kabangu; Di Phanzu, N.; Coune, Claude; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Angenot, Luc (1982). "Contribution à l'étude des propriétés insecticides et chimiques d'Eucalyptus saligna du Zaïre (Contribution to the study of insecticide and chemical properties of Eucalyptus saligna from Zaire ( Congo))". Plantes Médicinales et Phytothérapie. 16 (1): 34–38. hdl:2268/14438.
I just moved into my new apt with my 1 yr old and 3 yr old sons. the first night we slept on covers on the floor until i got the beds in. that very first morning there we woke up with bite marks on us. i thought maybe they were just mosquito bites or something. after the beds got in we continued to have this problem. poor kids cant play right from the itching. I’m pregnant so when the bites we on my stomach i went crazy especially since i worked so hard not to scratch and cause stretch marks.
Found worldwide, bedbugs are most common in developing countries. Still, reports of bedbugs in luxury hotels are not uncommon. They are most commonly found in areas like hostels, hotels, shelters, and apartment complexes where there are many visitors coming and going. When they enter your home, it's often because they have hidden in luggage, furniture, clothing, or boxes that are being moved. They can also travel on pets' fur. Increases in international travel may be responsible for the rise in bedbug sightings.

I can definitely understand. This is has been going on with us for almost a year. My hands and arms look like I have leprocy or something. Horrible blisters, rash, scabs, and bunches of “bumps” especially in my right hand. I wind up with painful blood blisters some times. I am living on benedryl and calamine lotion. I hate going out because of what I look like. I have taken to using cover up and foundation on my hands to make the mess less noticable. i have a long-sleeved summer weight sweater that I wear whenever I do have to go out.
Bring in only what is needed, and avoid sitting or placing coats and other items on beds, floors and sofas where the bugs commonly reside. Essential items can be placed on a tabletop or other hard surface, preferably away from bedrooms and sleeping areas. Better to sit on a hard (non-upholstered) chair than on sofas and recliners. Also try to avoid leaning or brushing against beds and upholstered furniture. If such items are carried out of infested dwellings (e.g., by sanitation workers or firefighters), it’s best to wrap them in plastic or at least not hold them against your body during transport. Emergency Medical (EMS) personnel may need to take additional precautions, such as removing a patient’s bed bug-infested shoes or clothing, or installing plastic sheeting before transporting them in the emergency vehicle.    
The best way to confirm that the bites are from bed bugs is to find other evidence of a bed bug infestation. Common telltale signs can be found on or near your mattress: pull up your sheets and check the seams and folds for thin black fecal streaks or small red blood spots. You might also find bed bugs, living or dead, and their discarded shells in various hiding places, such as the joints of your bed frame.
Nightstands and dressers may need to be emptied and examined inside and out, and tipped over to inspect the woodwork underneath. Oftentimes the bugs will be hiding in cracks, corners, and recesses. Other common bed bug hiding places include: along and under the edge of wall-to-wall carpeting, especially behind beds and sofas; cracks in wood molding; ceiling-wall junctures; behind wall-mounted pictures, mirrors, outlets and switch plates; under loose wallpaper; clothing and clutter within closets; and inside clocks, phones, televisions and smoke detectors.

Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
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