Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

Bed bugs are very resilient. Nymphs and adults can persist months without feeding which is unusual for most insects. The ability to survive without a blood meal is longer at cooler temperatures ― potentially up to a year or longer at 55°F or less. In temperature-controlled buildings, a more typical duration is about 2 to 6 months. Consequently, it is usually impractical to leave buildings unoccupied in hopes of ‘starving out’ an infestation. When infested dwellings such as apartments are vacated, bed bugs often disperse to nearby units, or reduce their activity until the unit is reoccupied. 


Run hot water as hot as you can take it. When its hot enough for you, run the hot water over your bites. Yes it does burn a little, but you’ll feel relief from the hot water drawing the “itch” out. Do this for about 10-15 seconds and then immediately switch to very cold water and run that over it. The shock to your skin from going from hot to cold immediately relieves the itch and it lasts for hours. I can take it pretty hot, so I almost give myself burns, but its worth it.
Encasing mattresses is one of many good parts of a solution, but it doesn't get rid of the infestation. There are going to be other bugs away from the mattress, hiding nearby. What mattress covers are good at is entombing the sometimes large number of bed bugs that can live on a mattress. And because the covers tend to be uniform in color and don't have a lot of seams that the bugs can hide in, it's easier to see the insects.
Just wondering if it is unusual for bed bugs to bite where you are clothed? I have 3 bites, in a diagonal line on one side and in a triangle shape on the other side of my pelvic area both which are covered by underwear at night. Then I have a random spot here and there on my legs. We have a plastic mattress cover on our bed but use dark sheets. As best I can tell there is no evidence of bed bugs. What do you think? Thanks!
I work @ a hotel, and just found out that one of the rooms has a bed bug problem. I work at the front desk, and never go into the rooms. But i work third shift, and sleep in the chair in the lobby. Just wanted to know what my chances were of catching them? I will be going home and looking just to make sure. But since i work here, and its un-avoidable, what are some things i can do to protect myself from taking them home?
Check to see if you can identify the rust-colored fecal stains, egg cases, and shed skins (exuviae) in crevices and cracks on or near beds. A sweet, musty odor is sometimes present. You should also look at other areas such as under wallpaper, behind picture frames, in couches and other furniture, in bedsprings and under mattresses, and even in articles of clothing. While fecal stains and skin casts suggest that bedbugs have been present, these do not confirm that the infestation is still active. Observing the bedbugs themselves is definitive confirmation that an area is infested. You may require professional assistance from a pest-control company in determining whether your home has a bed bug problem.
Bed bugs will also succumb to cold temperatures below 32°F, but the freezing temperatures must be maintained for a longer period (e.g., one to two weeks). Consequently, heating tends to be a better option throughout much of the country. Efforts to rid entire dwellings of bed bugs by raising or lowering the thermostat will be unsuccessful, although pest control firms are able to achieve lethal temperatures with supplemental heaters (see the subsequent section entitled "Heat Treatments" for more details). 

WHAT IS IT WITH THESE EU COUNTRIES - WHY ARE THEY SO SPINELESS? THEY ALL HAVE AN EQUAL VOTE YET THEY ARE ALLOWING JUNCKER AND BARNIER TO OBSTRUCTIVE AND DIFFICULT? WHO IS IN ULTIMATE CONTROL OF THE EU - THE MEMBER STATES OR THE EU COMMISSION? I VOTED TO REMAIN BUT I'M NOW GLAD WE'RE LEAVING - IT IS RUN BY DICTATORS IN BRUSSELS AND HAS GUTLESS WONDERS AS MEMBERS..............

Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses, are effective.[3][6] An hour at a temperature of 45 °C (113 °F) or over, or two hours at less than −17 °C (1 °F) kills them.[6] This may include a domestic clothes drier for fabric or a commercial steamer. Bed bugs and their eggs will die on contact when exposed to surface temperatures above 180 degrees and a steamer can reach well above 230 degrees.[31][15] A study found 100% mortality rates for bed bugs exposed to temperatures greater than 50 °C (122 °F) for more than 2 minutes. The study recommended maintaining temperatures of above 48 °C for more than 20 min to effectively kill all life stages of bed bugs, and because in practice treatment times of 6 to 8 hours are used to account for cracks and indoor clutter.[32] This method is expensive and has caused fires.[6][15] Starving them is not effective as they can survive without eating for 100 to 300 days, depending on temperature.[6] One expert recommends not trying to get rid of bed bugs exclusively on one's own.[29]
Bed bugs are small, brownish, flattened insects that feed solely on the blood of animals. Although the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) prefers feeding on humans, it will also bite other warm-blooded animals, including dogs, cats, birds and rodents. It has done so since ancient times; bed bugs are mentioned in medieval European texts and classical Greek writings back to the time of Aristotle.
Insect and spider bites and how to deal with them Insect and spider bites can occur almost unnoticed, or they can be painful. Either way, home treatment is usually enough for most symptoms. However, some bites can spread serious disease, such as Lyme disease and malaria. Find out how to protect against bites and what to do if someone has a severe reaction to a bite. Read now

I know this is a few years late, but I just wanted to let you know we had a similar situation, but it was for a few months every summer. Turns out there were bats in our attic, and the bat bugs will still bite you like bed bugs except they don’t really love humans so it will be infrequent and you won’t have to worry about an infestation! When you get rid of the bats, they go away eventually.


Cracks and crevices of bed frames should also be examined, especially if the frame is wood. (Bed bugs have an affinity for wood and fabric more so than metal or plastic.) Wooden support slats, if present, should be removed and examined since bed bugs often congregate where the ends rest on the frame. Screw holes, knots and other recesses are also common hiding places. Headboards secured to walls should be removed and inspected. In hotels, the area behind the headboard is often the first place that bed bugs become established. Bed bugs also frequently hide within items stored under beds. 
I spent the night at my boyfriends house 5 nights in a row, knowing that his family owns a couch infested with bed bugs. I find it weird that I’m the only one, out of 7 family members, that gets bit by the bed bugs! Its crazy! I get bit during the day when I sit for a few mins, or even sleep on the bed at night, but it still baffles me that I’m the only one who is suffering from the itch of the bites. My son who I share the bed with does not get bit at all, which is great, but I’m curious, “why only Me?”

I need some really serious advice. I’m presently staying in a shelter because of abusive situation. It’s only been two days but I am COVERED in bed bug bites. The shelter refuses to move me to another bed because of limited space they said. I have taken oral and topical medications. The thing is it keeps getting worse and worse because every night I have to sleep in the same bed.
Around the time I started getting bites, I noticed more and more neighbors throwing out mattresses, furniture… I got suspicious. We live in apartments. I react differently to different kinds of bites so I can always tell the difference between mosquitoes and ants and such. I didn’t know what those bites were until I caught one of the little hellions crawling across the sheets.
Also, we do have pets and a 10 year old living with us as well. 3 cats and a dog. They have been fine with the bleach smell, though it seems to be making one of my cats a little wild. A suggestion I have, if you try what we’re trying, is put the animals up until the KABOOM has dried, because, where as our animals are seemingly okay, it could still harm them. Luckily our cats are indoor/outdoor cats, so we can put them outside while we do it.

The likelihood of bed bugs increases if the affected individual has been traveling, or if they have acquired used beds or furnishings before symptoms started to appear. Bed bugs also are suspect if you wake up with itchy welts you did not have when you went to sleep. It’s important to recognize, however, that not all bite-like reactions are due to bed bugs. Confirmation requires finding and identifying the bed bugs, shed skins, fecal spots, etc., which often requires the help of a professional. (Other possible sources of irritation that may be mistaken for bed bugs are discussed in University of Kentucky entomology fact sheet ENT-58, Invisible Itches: Insect and Non-Insect Causes). 
 Adult bed bugs are about 3/16” long and reddish-brown, with oval-shaped, flattened bodies. They are sometimes mistaken for ticks, cockroaches, carpet beetles or other household insects. The immature bed bugs (nymphs) resemble the adults, but are smaller and lighter in color. Bed bugs do not fly, and they don’t jump like fleas do ― but they can crawl rapidly over floors, walls, ceilings and other surfaces. Adult females lay their eggs in secluded places, depositing 1, 2 or more eggs per day, potentially hundreds during their lifetime. The eggs are tiny (about the size of a dust spec), whitish and hard to see without magnification, especially on light-colored surfaces. When first laid, the eggs are sticky, causing them to adhere to surfaces. At room temperatures, bed bug eggs hatch in about a week. Newly emerged nymphs are straw-colored and no bigger than a pinhead.
A bedbug is a small, blood-sucking parasite that feeds on mammals and birds. Bedbugs belong to the insect family Cimicidae. Although there are several different species, the most common species associated with human bedbug infestations are Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus. Bedbugs are considered a public health pest. There has been a recent resurgence in bedbug infestations worldwide, particularly in developed countries, including the United States.
I live in a high rise apt bldg. There have been reports of bed bugs since I moved in two years ago. Recently it was my turn. I see no bugs, but man o man did they have a feast on my legs, and inner thighs. I went for the ammonia trick. The only thing I had was window cleaner. It helped stopped the itch temporarily. Then I’m good for some hours. When the itch comes back, I douse again in Blue window cleaner again. Strange but true.
Some firms want beds stripped and furniture moved before they arrive, while other firms prefer to inspect first and perform these tasks themselves. Clutter and belongings on floors (especially beneath beds) must be removed since they impede treatment and afford additional places for bugs to hide. Bedding and garments normally will need to be laundered and/or hot dried (120°F minimum) since they cannot be treated with insecticides. An effective and efficient alternative to laundering is to simply place bedding, clothing, toys, shoes, backpacks, etc., in a clothes dryer set at medium-to-high heat for 10 to 20 minutes. This can be done in lieu of washing and will kill all bed bug life stages. 
With practice and a flashlight, nonprofessionals can become proficient in finding and destroying bed bugs. The process is made easier by reducing clutter, especially in bedrooms and sleeping areas. Bugs that are spotted can be removed with a vacuum (see previous discussion), or killed with over-the-counter insecticides labeled for such use. Most bed bug sprays intended for householders have little remaining effect after the spray has dried. Therefore it’s important to initially contact as many of the insects as possible with the spray droplets. Insecticide labels should be read carefully as some bed bug products should not be used on mattresses and seating areas. Some insecticides applied as powders or dusts (e.g., diatomaceous earth) will kill bed bugs although boric acid powder will not. However powders can be messy and difficult to apply, especially by nonprofessionals. Total release foggers (otherwise known as ‘bug bombs’) are ineffective against bed bugs and potentially dangerous when used incorrectly (see University of Kentucky entomology fact sheet Limitations of Home Insect Foggers).
I’ve been getting bites as well and I am extremely allergic. It is super itchy and now I have scars that will never go away. I am the ONLY one in my family getting bitten so no one understands my pain. I have 2 hours of sleep max at night because of both paranoia and getting bitten. I am up to the point that I cry almost every night from the pain. I’ve tried a lot of solutions, the one that is currently working for me is Vaseline. I apply several thick layers of the jelly and it stops the pain and itching. It also helped a lot with the swelling. I noticed it sped up the healing process a lot more than over-the-counter drugs that I’ve tried. I hope this helps!
Unlike cockroaches and flies that feed on filth, there is often no relationship between bed bugs and cleanliness. Since the bugs feed solely on blood, pristine dwellings can be as vulnerable to infestation as are places of squalor. That said, poverty and privation can lead to increased risk of bed bug problems, as can the inability to hire a professional exterminator.    
The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, increased immigration from the developing world to the developed world, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests, resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[4][38] Declines in household cockroach populations that have resulted from the use of insecticides effective against this major bed bug predator have aided the bed bugs' resurgence, as have bans on DDT and other potent pesticides.[39][medical citation needed]
If the bed bugs are coming from someplace other than your bed, I’d sprinkle uncalcinated diatomaceous earth around cluttered areas and the walls, and bleach the crap out of surrounding furniture. What the diatomaceous earth does is basically attach to their exoskeleton, dehydrate the insect, and they’ll either die of dehydration or get shredded apart as they crawl. Unless your pet or kid would directly eat the diatomaceous earth, it is safe to be in contact with since it’s not a chemical pesticide and it’s fairly cheap.
I’ve encountered mosquito bites, flea bites and spider bites, but never had I encountered bed bug bites, that is until I travelled to San Francisco, CA. I made the trip at least four times a year; however, this time was different—opting to stay in a nearby hotel instead of with family or friends. I remember lying in bed. The room was hot and stuffy, causing me to toss and turn throughout the night. When morning came, I was exhausted but began my usual morning routine eager to get on the road. After a quick rinse, I dragged myself over to the mirror; that’s when I noticed them—little red bumps across my chest. Quickly, I scurried over to the bed—pulling off sheets, flipping pillows, inspecting the mattress and the box spring—nothing! Ugh, how could this have happened? It was a top-rated hotel. Were these bed bug bites, or was it another blood-sucking insect?
I have had one bite in threes which cleared up in days and an occasional acne looking sore on my but and arm. I have noted in my car lots of little bites but no marks. My son does not appear to have bites. once he had one on his back that cleared quickly. I really needs some help here as I am getting obsessive with cleaning and making my child change and bath. I have checked my cat for flees and bought her a flee collar as I am thinking the stinging bites I get in the day may be from flees but no itch or real marks. Help please.
The Internet abounds with so-called miracle cures for bed bugs. But bed bugs are hard to get rid of, so anything that advertises an immediate solution is not accurate—it's snake oil. These "cures" have included (as reported by pest control operators who come in afterward to tackle bed bugs correctly) using bleach, ammonia and even DIY heat treatment, which carries fire risk.
As bed bugs grow they molt, shedding their skin five times before reaching maturity. A blood meal is needed between each successive molt. Adult females also must feed in order to lay eggs. Under favorable conditions (70-80°F), the bugs can mature fully in as little as a month, producing multiple generations per year. Cooler temperatures or limited access to blood prolong the development time. 
Bed bugs have flat oval bodies, six legs, are reddish-brown in color and are similar in size to a dog tick - many have described the adults as resembling a flat apple seed. Adult bed bugs are approximately 1/4 inch long, while nymphs (juveniles) may be as small 1/16 of an inch. With feeding, they enlarge or engorge with blood. The adults turn from a brownish to reddish color, while the translucent nymphs may become bright red during the feeding process. 

Hi, I’m a little late to the talk but this is honestly very strange to me, i had bed bugs about a year ago and fully got rid of them, as of yesterday, 9/10, i woke up to bites on my right hand, palm and fingers not on the top of my hand, and on my right foot, in between my toes and the soles of my foot. i thought it may be bed bugs because of having 3 days so maybe one of them jumped on my bed and brought one along, but i decided to sleep one more night, i now got bit on me left hand and feet the same as my other bites, only on my toes soles palms and fingers, they’re red bumps that itch and whenever they’re pressed along something they hurt, if they are bed bugs why aren’t they like how i had them last time where i got bit everywhere there wasn’t hair, now I’m only getting bit in those spots, hopefully my info helps! Thanks!


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About a week ago I woke up with bites on my legs starting at my ankle up to my thigh. They were sparse but could be counted as grouped or lined. I have no bites anywhere else and have not gotten anymore bites since this happened. My husband shares the bed and our two small children (3 years and 17 months) are frequent bed joiners and none of them have any bites. I sleep with pj pants on and under blankets so it wouldn’t be the most exposed skin that I have at night. However I have no recall of being bitten and had pants on during the day. The bites were itchy for about two days and then they are just red. I am wondering if they could be bed bugs. I am having trouble sleeping because of the uncertainty. I have pics I could post.
The size of bed bug bites varies with a number of different factors. Bed bugs inject an anti-coagulant along with their saliva when they pierce the skin to take a blood meal. This anti-coagulant is mostly responsible for how a person reacts to the bite and determines the size of the bug’s bite. Since people will have various sensitivities to the bed bug’s bite, the size of the bite will vary, as well. Another factor that influences the size of a bed bug reaction is the number of times a person is bitten. Bite reactions of people bitten many times are also variable, and their response may be either more or less intense as the number of bites increases.
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