Jump up ^ Johann Friedrich Wolff; Johann Philip Wolff. "According to Scopoli's 2nd work (loc. cit.), found in Carniola and adjoining regions. According to Linnaeus' second work on exotic insects (loc. cit.), before the era of health, already in Europe, seldom observed in England before 1670". Icones Cimicum descriptionibus illustratae. p. 127. Retrieved 1 December 2016. fourth fascicle (1804)
Bed bugs are obligatory bloodsucking. They have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides.[15] Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.
Chances are, you or someone you know has had a run-in with bed bugs. It might have happened in a scrupulously clean bedroom. Or maybe it was a hotel room, office or college dorm. In the February issue of Scientific American entomologist Kenneth Haynes of the University of Kentucky explains how, after a lengthy absence, bed bugs are staging a comeback. The good news is scientists are intensively studying these insects, and their insights suggest novel ways of detecting the bugs and eradicating infestations. Some of those potential solutions are a long way off, however. In the meantime the best bet is to avoid bringing bed bugs home in the first place. I called Haynes to ask him how to do that and what to do if one suspects an infestation (eek!), among a bunch of other practical-minded questions.
I live in a high rise apt bldg. There have been reports of bed bugs since I moved in two years ago. Recently it was my turn. I see no bugs, but man o man did they have a feast on my legs, and inner thighs. I went for the ammonia trick. The only thing I had was window cleaner. It helped stopped the itch temporarily. Then I’m good for some hours. When the itch comes back, I douse again in Blue window cleaner again. Strange but true.
Hi, I am at a loss about what to do. I have been getting bitten day and night, but I don’t know if they are bedbugs. Whatever it is, seems to get under my clothes and bite me along the waist, bra line, posterior, and chest. They only itch when I first discover them, afterwards they don’t bother me…. But I am the only person in the house getting bitten! I washed and steamed everything and everyone! What else can I do?!
To avoid light, bedbugs hide in the seams of mattresses and crevices of bed frames, walls, and furniture during the day.5,7 They are attracted to human hosts by warmth and carbon dioxide; these hosts generally sleep within 3 to 7 feet (1 to 2 meters) of the bedbugs’ hiding places.8,9 Feeding usually takes place just before dawn.10 Bedbug saliva contains several anesthetic, vasodilatory, anticoagulant, and proteolytic compounds that allow the insects to feed undetected for five to 10 minutes. Three of these compounds have been identified as instigators of the subsequent hypersensitivity reactions that may be noticed when the host awakens.11–14
The creatures don't have wings and they can't fly or jump. But their narrow body shape and ability to live for months without food make them ready stowaways and squatters. Bedbugs can easily hide in the seams and folds of luggage, bags and clothes. They also take shelter behind wallpaper and inside bedding, box springs and furniture. The ones that feed on people can crawl more than 100 feet (30 meters) in a night, but typically creep to within 8 feet (2.4 m) of the spot its human hosts sleep, according to the CDC.
8 days ago my friend & i decided to crash at my grandmas house after a wild night out. in the morning we woke up in horror seeing how they freely crawled all over her mattress cover. Within the last 7 days, bite marks have been appearing all over my body, i am practically covered; as to my friend, well lucky her she has only 3 on her arm. The problem isn’t only that i have more bites than her but i believe i have an allergic reaction, the bites have massively grown in size. I do not know what else to try, Calamine doesn’t work, baking soda with water made it worse, Benadryl hasn’t done anything either. I am at a point where i am about to cry. The worst part is that in less than a month I am going on my first tropical vacation. I simply cannot handle the stress, i suffer from mild anxiety & these massive rashes have turned these 7 days into hell. I have stopped scratching because it seems to irritate the bites. Please help.

You can develop a skin infection if you scratch the bites. Rarely, a more severe allergic reaction to the bites could produce larger welts, blisters, or anaphylaxis. Bedbugs may also trigger asthma attacks and getting too many repeated bites could lead to anemia. Anxiety, insomnia, and sleep disturbances are common due to the stress of discovering bedbugs.
I prefer not to use chemicals because I have to breathe it in. Worse if you got kid and pets. As for the itch, try salt water.. works best if you didn’t start scratching. Keep the area cool to control the inflammation and itch with a wet paper towel. Then soothe with a generous amt of aloe get. Everyone reacted differently to the bed bug bites. Good luck.
Bed bugs occur around the world.[36] Before the 1950s about 30% of houses in the United States had bedbugs.[2] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[3][4][36] Before the 1980s they were common in the developing world but rare in the developed world.[4] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[37]
I have various skin lesions which might or might not be bed-bug bites–small, raised, sometimes red, sometimes itchy. The problem is I live right next door to a large park and get all kinds of insects in summer, may small enough to get through my window-screen. Also, I have Parkinson’s disease, and the meds I take for it can produce hives and itching as a side-effect. And, my bedding and mattress are all dark colored, so I likely would not see fecal stains or shed bed-bug skins.
However, always remember that these simply treat the problem and do not get down to the root cause. You will still need to take steps to get rid of them! Here are a couple home remedies to get rid of bed bugs that have been extremely helpful to the community. I encourage you to take a look at that article if you are serious about removing them properly.
Bed bugs hide in seams of mattresses, box springs, bed frames, headboards, dresser tables, inside cracks or crevices, behind wallpaper, or any other clutter or objects around a bed during the day. Bed bugs are transmitted from place to place as people travel. They can be in the seams and folds of luggage, overnight bags, folded clothes, bedding, furniture, or anywhere else they find a place to hide.

Bed bug bites do not typically require treatment. It is best to clean the bite site(s) with soap and water and avoid scratching so as to prevent secondary infection. Progressive swelling, warmth, tenderness and sometimes (albeit rarely) fever may be signs of secondary infection, which should be managed with antibiotics as appropriate. Much more common are complaints of itching. For how to treat bed bug bites that cause severe itching, topical steroid creams or oral antihistamines may offer relief from itching and thus decrease the risk of infecting the bite site.


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Luckily, I just discovered this website giving great advice regarding all the pink, itchy bumps and welts on some parts of my body – and I never experienced problems with bed bugs before until now! So far, I’ve only seen one. But, I’m blessed to already have many of the home remedies for cleaning my sofabed, where I got bit from the bug(s), and started working on treating the irritating bites. I hope to get back to let everybody know how things go.

Within 20 of exposure I started coming down with bumps. They started to.on my forearms but now have spread to legs. My company sent a exterminator to my home to check to make sure I didn’t spread them to my home, my home declared bug free:). They sent me to employee health where I was put on strong antibiotic and cortisone like cream to put on wounds. They are red, cluster like itchy. Frustrating thing is I keep getting more. I am so itchy I can’t sleep. Could it be something different then bugs that I was exposed to? Just frustrated with continual bites
I have been getting bit maybe once a week but the bite marks disappear within a hr and no longer itch I have not found the culprit and I have bed bugs climb up interceptors under my bed for almost 4 months and still don’t see anything do you have an idea what could be biting me the marks appear in a row of three sometimes just one bite on my arms and in my face but no where else im clueless
"We originally thought the bedbugs might prefer red because blood is red and that's what they feed on," study co-author Corraine McNeill, an assistant professor of biology at Union College in Lincoln, Nebraska, said in a statement. "However, after doing the study, the main reason we think they preferred red colors is because bedbugs themselves appear red, so they go to these harborages because they want to be with other bedbugs, as they are known to exist in aggregations."
All of the stages of bed bugs are visible, at least if you don't need reading glasses and you have a sufficient amount of light. So if you're looking closely enough, you can even see bugs in the nymphal first instar stage. A fecal spot, for its part, can be as large as a bed bug itself in terms of the area it covers. The spots are basically digested blood, so most are dark in color. On a white mattress, they stand out pretty well.
Check to see if you can identify the rust-colored fecal stains, egg cases, and shed skins (exuviae) in crevices and cracks on or near beds. A sweet, musty odor is sometimes present. You should also look at other areas such as under wallpaper, behind picture frames, in couches and other furniture, in bedsprings and under mattresses, and even in articles of clothing. While fecal stains and skin casts suggest that bedbugs have been present, these do not confirm that the infestation is still active. Observing the bedbugs themselves is definitive confirmation that an area is infested. You may require professional assistance from a pest-control company in determining whether your home has a bed bug problem.
Caregivers, firefighters, and other service providers are sometimes required to enter and work in bed bug-infested dwellings. In doing so, there is the potential to transport some bugs home or to the workplace. It should be noted that bed bugs do not fly, nor jump onto people/pets as fleas do. During the day, bed bugs usually remain hidden and immobile, becoming more active at night when seeking a host. Consequently, the chance of picking up bed bugs by merely walking into an infested dwelling during the day is unlikely. The risk may increase while providing care but can be lessened by taking some precautions. 
Bed bugs are a growing problem in schools and daycares. Typically they are introduced by students or staff living with an infestation at home. Pinpointing where the bugs exist can be challenging in such environments since there are no beds or sleeping areas for the insects to congregate. (Similar challenges occur when bed bugs are found in offices, libraries and retail stores.) Usually only small numbers of bed bugs are spotted, often on a student’s clothing, backpack, chair or desk. While this does not necessarily confirm that the child’s residence also has bed bugs, the parents should be notified that the home should be inspected, preferably by a professional. Teachers, nurses, and staff should be educated about the bugs and what they look like. Bed bugs should also be considered if a student frequently has reddened itchy welts --but keep in mind such reactions can be for reasons other than bed bugs. 
I am apparently allergic to these things. My bites swell to huge sizes and I get red marks running up my arms and it itches like crazy, almost like a burning itch. However, doing some research I found an effective way to stop the itch. Its not for everyone, but for someone like me who can’t even touch the shells (my fingers have gotten swollen searching for the damn things), this works for me. Again, not for everyone:
Bed bugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583,[50] though they remained rare in England until 1670. Some in the 18th century believed bed bugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666). Giovanni Antonio Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (roughly equivalent to present-day Slovenia) in the 18th century.[52][53]

My fiance and I have been dealing with bed bugs for 3 years. In the beginning I was the one being bitten. Just recently my fiance has been covered in bites. His lip is swollen this morning. We don’t know what to do anymore. This entire process is expensive and hard for us to afford. we’ve been treated by 3 exterminators. None have worked. I’m very upset because all of our belongings are damaged because of this! The Land Lord keeps bring exterminators and nothing’s working. we follow all the directions. I’ve checked my cat he seems to be fine, but I don’t know anymore. we’re miserable. I think we are stuck for life.
Nightstands and dressers may need to be emptied and examined inside and out, and tipped over to inspect the woodwork underneath. Oftentimes the bugs will be hiding in cracks, corners, and recesses. Other common bed bug hiding places include: along and under the edge of wall-to-wall carpeting, especially behind beds and sofas; cracks in wood molding; ceiling-wall junctures; behind wall-mounted pictures, mirrors, outlets and switch plates; under loose wallpaper; clothing and clutter within closets; and inside clocks, phones, televisions and smoke detectors.
Hey Jessica! Sounds like bed bug bites to me but don’t stress, although bed bugs are known to travel with you from other locations its not a guarantee that they always do. I recommend giving all your clothing a hot wash when you get back home (and your travel bags) and to inspect your bed for signs of their presence. As a precautionary measure, you can put DE under your sheets for a day or two and that will kill any pests that are hiding there. Good luck
Every morning, even after countless treatments of our bed and linens, I wake up with 20-30 new bites. I react extremely strongly to them, they can swell as big as a half dollar, and they itch sO badly I often end up ripping them open, leaving them prone to infection. I’m now a diagnoses anemic, which the doctor is sure is because of the number of bites…they are literally eating me alive…and killing me.
So I have had bedbugs before and I had tons of bites everywhere from my feet to my neck! This time im not exactly sure if I have bed bugs.. I came home one evening and notices bites on my inner arm and then on my forearm, the ones on my inner arm are out of place and scattered bites, the ones on my fore arm are 3 diagonal dots. I have checked my bed and box spring seeing as I have had them before but there is nothing there? Am I being paranoid or do I really have bed bugs?
Hello! Almost overnight I have had a series of small bumps appear on my chest. These bumps look like pimples and they don’t itch at all. I had bed bugs well over a year ago and once they were treated I never saw anything except these bumps recently. My sister thinks I’m just being paranoid because we’ve both checked the bed and saw no signs. And because my chest is always covered, but my arms and legs that are are exposed never have places. I realize that I’m probably being paranoid, but I just wanted an outside opinion.
My 9 yr old was diagnosed with PN, her nodules are so omggggg all I can do is cry and pray for her because it’s only her itching and 5 different doctors that can’t help me tell my Autistic beautiful lil girl your still so Beautiful, she cries. I tell Doctor’s she has heart disease and Autism please tell me they say I don’t know here is cream. Soooo cried out and helpless and depressed I am and so is she, please please help…
Probably chiggers -- they are very small, red mites that usually cannot be seen with the naked eye. They are about as small as the period at the end of this sentence. To stop the itching, use OraJel (usually sold for teething babies), which contains benzocaine (an anesthetic). Also, rub in hydrocortisone cream. To prevent chigger bites, wear long pants and stuff the cuffs into your socks.
About five weeks ago bed bugs were found out work, then two weeks ago they spread, pest control has seen continuously coming to check and yesterday they gave the place the green light. I work with a largely indigent populace, the office I work at was not sprayed, during the night at some point, I will feel painful stings, hours later I have been finding small lumps or even large and hard ones, Could it be bed bugs? There is a particularly painful lump on the back of my thigh, it’s very hard too.
Ive had a boy friend that stayed at a gospel mission in seattle and complained an complained how bad they were there. He came over to my house, which im not blaming him, he has never been bitten. Plus we had another person at our house that came over that has the same problem. Ive been getting bit for about 4 months. Kids sleep in my room an they havent got bit at all. I bombed the room, ive vacuumed, scraped mattress,washed all clothes several times in hot water searched everywhere took off matting that was on my box spring and I could not find a single one!!!! Well since i bombed I havent been bit, but tonight as i was sitting here i finally saw one crawling on my clothes that were on the floor. Now im freaked out! Could there only be one? Or do they always produce a family?

We have bedbugs. They are all over the house. In all of the rooms. My daughter feels that it would be safer to sleep outside than in this house. My son has really sensitive skin and the bedbugs love to attack him. One night he just kept twisting and turning because he must have been itching. We have had to get rid of all of our beds and have had to sleep on the floor. The floor is safer than the beds but not by much. The bedbugs seem to be everywhere. On the walls, on the floor, with you, or in your beds. We have tried many things so if anyone has any advice, it would be very much appreciated.
Just came back from a hotel stay, have one VERY itchy bite on my wrist. I don’t know for sure that it is a bed bug bite butI haven’t unpacked my bags yet, so hopefully everything is safe. Right now I have an aloe and lidocaine gel over the bite, but when I get home I may try soaking it in tea bath. the tannin in black tea can also help with itching and swelling.
Scratching can cause superinfection, leading to impetigo, cellulitis, or folliculitis.27–32 Reactions typically resolve within one to two weeks without treatment.32 Systemic reactions have been described, including asthma, generalized urticaria, angioedema, iron deficiency anemia, and, very rarely, anaphylaxis.33–36 Although bedbugs have been suspected to be vectors of more than 40 microorganisms, there is no evidence that they are involved in the transmission of disease.5
Hello all I just want to put this out there that heat is the best way to kill these little pests. I work for a company that uses heat to do structural pasteurization, in other words we heat the entire house up to 140°+ (which is higher than the the thermal kill point for bedbugs) for an hour or more (though they can only withstand that heat for less than 15 min) This has been the ONLY way to kill them with a 100% success rate since they are becoming resistant to chemicals and DDT is illegal. Some things work for some infestations but not for all, there are a lot of good ideas on here :-)

My bites from two weeks ago are still rough. I have used the window cleaner, cortisone and then for the open areas , antibiotic ointment. I slept in my bed last night with no problem. I will spray again and again and again in the event of new generations. They don’t sell Phantom in my area. That is supposed to kill 95% of the eggs. Wish I could find some. These little bastards are something else. Good Luck to all.

Hello! Almost overnight I have had a series of small bumps appear on my chest. These bumps look like pimples and they don’t itch at all. I had bed bugs well over a year ago and once they were treated I never saw anything except these bumps recently. My sister thinks I’m just being paranoid because we’ve both checked the bed and saw no signs. And because my chest is always covered, but my arms and legs that are are exposed never have places. I realize that I’m probably being paranoid, but I just wanted an outside opinion.


Caregivers, firefighters, and other service providers are sometimes required to enter and work in bed bug-infested dwellings. In doing so, there is the potential to transport some bugs home or to the workplace. It should be noted that bed bugs do not fly, nor jump onto people/pets as fleas do. During the day, bed bugs usually remain hidden and immobile, becoming more active at night when seeking a host. Consequently, the chance of picking up bed bugs by merely walking into an infested dwelling during the day is unlikely. The risk may increase while providing care but can be lessened by taking some precautions. 
my concern is i am homeless and staying at a mission for now downtown Seattle there are thousands of these things in our city and biting a lot of sick people …”CAN YOU GET AIDS FROM A BED BUG???”i guess this is a major concern for a lot of people and how do we go about eliminating them in our city???..what do we put on the bites or do we just leave it alone???
Our place is pretty cluttered so I was freaking out. Luckily we have hardwood floors and not carpet. We tried different things. It gets really hot here, so I loaded up any nearby sheets, pillows, comforters, clothes, etc into trash bags and tied them off so nothing could get out. I put those in the car so the sun could beat heat into them all day. Never thought I’d be so thankful for Texas summers… Still got bites. We bought a mattress cover. Still got bites. We thought, okay, maybe they’re coming from the wall socket from a neighbors or something. We couldn’t close it so we kept the bed away from furniture and walls and put sticky traps on the legs. Caught NO bed bugs but STILL GOT BITES. I was losing my mind.

After being treated by a dermatologist for nearly 2 mos for red marks all over my body – he stated that I did not have bed bug bites (he even took a biopsy of my skin) and said I had leichen planus. I took pills for 2 weeks and then began ultra violent light treatments – nothing was helping them go away. Finally, I called an exterminator to inspect my home only to find out we have bed bugs and the marks on my body are bed bug bites. I stopped going to the dermatologist and wasted 2 months precious time in getting rid of the bugs. They are driving me crazy – had my first extermination done (2 more needed) and still seeing the bugs and getting bit – can’t sleep a wink – any suggestions to help with the anxiety I’m going through would be greatly appreciated.
I dont know if my post was received. I am using a phone its started acting weird and my comment was gone. My problem with bedbugs is so horrible I am trying again. I am 60 years old. I have never seen or even heard of someone having these creatures from hell.I am allergic to the bites. The red blotches quickly turned to deep red pus filled holes . Some arw very painful. I feel like my clothes have stickers in them. None of tje high priced insecticides for bedo bugs have did anything. I am actually losing it. I have used a lot of different chemicals because I am so terrible infected by their bite. I have not put a dent in the problem. I think I have poisoned myself. I have holed up in my bedroom embarassed of the bugs and the bjtes that cover my arms, legs back and toros. My son came by and I quickly rushed him outside. Completely puzzled he asked what’s is going on here ? I felt like the most horrible person. I just didnt want him to carry this curse home. I and in a hopess situation.
The significant resurgence of bedbugs in the past decade has been attributed to pesticide resistance, more frequent travel, lack of public awareness, and inadequate pest control programs. Bedbugs are obligate blood parasites (insect family Cimicidae). They can withstand a large range of temperatures but are attracted to warmth and carbon dioxide. They typically feed just before dawn. Cutaneous reactions to bedbug bites can include macules, papules, wheals, vesicles, bullae, and nodules. Bites may be confused with other skin conditions. Bedbug bite reactions are typically self-limited and resolve within one to two weeks without treatment. Bedbug infestation may cause significant psychological distress. The diagnosis of a bedbug infestation is based on history, appearance of bites, and inspection of sleeping quarters. Although there is no evidence that bedbugs transmit disease, systemic reactions may include asthma, angioedema, generalized urticaria, iron deficiency anemia, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. An integrated pest management strategy should be employed to eliminate infestation. Tactics include vacuuming, heat or cold treatment, trapping devices, and pesticides.
No one tactic alone will be effective. A good pest control operator will develop a strategy to deal with the bed bugs that takes the particulars of the setting into account, and will return several times to check on progress. Dry ice sprays that freeze bed bugs have limited potential to reach hidden bugs. Steam has somewhat better penetrating ability. The downside of steam is that it leaves moisture behind. Dry ice doesn't leave any residue at all. Vacuuming has a role, but it has limitations, too. Some insecticides leave behind deposits that are slow to act but are effective in the long-term. Other insecticides kill on contact, but only reach insects that are in view. Insecticide resistance makes the choice of tactics more difficult.

Jump up ^ Anderson, J. F.; Ferrandino, F. J.; McKnight, S.; Nolen, J.; Miller, J. (2009). "A carbon dioxide, heat and chemical lure trap for the bed bug, Cimex lectularius" (PDF). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 23 (2): 99–105. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00790.x. PMID 19499616. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2010.

My 9 yr old was diagnosed with PN, her nodules are so omggggg all I can do is cry and pray for her because it’s only her itching and 5 different doctors that can’t help me tell my Autistic beautiful lil girl your still so Beautiful, she cries. I tell Doctor’s she has heart disease and Autism please tell me they say I don’t know here is cream. Soooo cried out and helpless and depressed I am and so is she, please please help…
The best way to confirm that the bites are from bed bugs is to find other evidence of a bed bug infestation. Common telltale signs can be found on or near your mattress: pull up your sheets and check the seams and folds for thin black fecal streaks or small red blood spots. You might also find bed bugs, living or dead, and their discarded shells in various hiding places, such as the joints of your bed frame.

Bed bugs are an increasing cause for litigation.[69] Courts have, in some cases, exacted large punitive damage judgments on some hotels.[70][71][72] Many of New York City's Upper East Side home owners have been afflicted, but they tend to be silent publicly in order not to ruin their property values and be seen as suffering a blight typically associated with the lower classes.[73]

When I discovered bed bugs, at first I thought it was just mosquitoes or something. It wasn’t they his exceptionally well. I cleared any clutter I had, especially near the bed. How to Treat Bed Bug Bites, or bugs in general is you need to first inspect the bed. The black dots are a sign where they dwell. You need to be careful not to alarm them or they’ll just move to another location that’s harder to find.
You’ll likely only see them in their hiding spots or crawling across the floor since, unlike other insects, bedbugs cannot fly or jump. Durham says to check along the edges of your mattress. You may see the exoskeletons that bedbugs have shed as they matured, or you may notice a musty smell, both of which indicate there could be bedbugs in the area. It can also be helpful to check your bed with a flashlight during the middle of the night (since these crawlers tend to be more active at night.)
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